Artemova Serafima Nikolaevna, Candidate of geographical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of geography, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Ikonnikov Dmitry Sergeevich, Doctor of historical sciences, sub-department of human anatomy, head of the anthropological laboratory of the sub-department of human anatomy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Lomov Stanislav Petrovich, Doctor of geographical sciences, professor, sub-department of real estate cadaster and law, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (28 Titova street, Penza, Russia); Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Environmental Sciences, email@example.com
Background. A great landscape diversity and a high natural potential of the northern forest-steppe define a special place of this region in the Russian economy, as one of the most important agricultural regions. In the course of preparing a program of the region’s sustainable development it is very important to restore borders and contents of indigenous landscapes and to study the dynamics and nature of the landscapes’ transformation. To understand the laws of nature development in the present and give a reasonable estimate of their development for the future it is necessary to reconstruct the paleogeographic conditions of past eras. The Holocene is the period when zonal landscapes were shaped and their anthropogenic changes began. The aim of this study is to identify main regularities of development and dynamics of the territory of the Upper Sura river and Mokshan district landscapes in the Holocene.
Materials and methods. The initial materials for the study were: a landscape map of Penza region, cartographic and archival materials on geology, soils, climate, vegetation and archaeological materials of the area under consideration. The main sources of information on the evolution of the Penza region’s landscape in the Holocene
were the data obtained as a result of fundamental research of climate change and vegetation of adjacent territories, that were reflected in works by A. A Velichko, E. Y. Novenco, N. V. Blagovecenskaya, O. V. Smirnova, I. I. Sprygin, F. N. Milkov, N. I. Pyavchenko, T. B. Silaeva, A. A. Chiguryaeva, V. S. Dokturovskiy. A historical and geographical analysis of the landscape development was performed using the retrospective method.
Results. The article gives general characteristics of development and dynamics of the territory of the Upper Sura river and Mokshan district landscapes in the Holocene. We identified the main stages of indigenous landscapes formation and their transformation under the influence of economic activities, as well as conducted the historical and geographical analysis at the level of landscape and terrain types.
Conclusions. Geological and geomorphological processes of climate fluctuation and economic activities in the Holocene affected the formation of modern landscapes. Early periods of development are determined by features of the lithogenic basis and climate, and the evolution of the vegetation is consistent with the climatic parameters. The most important factor of the formation of the landscapes in the second half of the Holocene is the economic activity. Indigenous forest and steppe landscapes were formed in the mid Holocene, and their development with the participation of the anthropogenic factor began 2500–3000 thousand years ago. The most powerful influence of economic activities and the development of destructive geoecological processes have occured from the 17th century.
1. Minin A. A. Vzaimosvyazi i prostranstvenno-vremennaya izmenchivost' sostoyaniy klimata i nazemnykh ekosistem Russkoy ravniny: avtoref. dis. d-ra biol. nauk [Interconnections and space-time changeability of the climate and ground ecosystems in the Russian Plain: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the doctor of biological sciences]. Moscow, 1995, 36 p.
2. Yamashkin A. A., Artemova S. N., Novikova L. A., Leonova N. A., Alekseeva N. S. Problemy regional'noy ekologii [Problems of regional ecology]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 49–57.
3. Chistyakova A. A., Novikova L. A., Dyukova G. R., Cheburaeva A. N. Izuchenie i okhrana biologicheskogo raznoobraziya landshaftov Russkoy ravniny: sb. materialov Mezhdunar. nauch. konf., posvyashch. 80-letiyu Penzenskogo zapovednika [Study and protection of the landscape biological diversity of the Russian Plain: proceedings of the International scientific conference devoted to the 80th anniversary of the Penza nature
reserve]. Penza: Privolzhskiy dom znaniy, 1999, pp. 12–15.
4. Paleoklimaty i paleolandshafty vnetropicheskogo prostranstva Severnogo polushariya. Pozdniy pleystotsen-golotsen [Paleo climates and paleolandscapes of extratropical area of the northern hemisphere. The late Pleistocene-Holocene]. Ed. by A. A. Velichko. Moscow, 2009, 120 p.
5. Novenko E. Yu., Volkova E. M., Glasko M. P., Zyuganova I. S., Burova O. V. Izvestiya RAN. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings of RAS. Series: Geography]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 68–83.
6. Novenko E. Yu. Izmeneniya rastitel'nosti i klimata Tsentral'noy i Vostochnoy Evropy v pozdnem pleystotsene i golotsene v mezhlednikovye i perekhodnye etapy klimaticheskikh makrotsiklov [Vegetation and climate changes of Central and Eastern Europe in the late Pleistocene and Holocene during interglacial and transitional stages of climate macrocycles]. Moscow: GEOS, 2016, 228 p.
7. Cheguryaeva A. A. Uchenye zapiski Saratovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. N. G. Chernyshevskogo. Ser.: Biologicheskaya [Proceedings of Saratov State University named after N. G. Chernyshevsky. Series: Biology]. 1941, vol. 15, iss. 7, pp. 3–82.
8. Dokturovskiy V. S. Trudy po izucheniyu zapovednikov [Works on nature reserve studies]. Moscow: Izd-vo Glavnauki, 1925, iss. 3, pp. 1–15.
9. P'yavchenko N. I. Torfyaniki russkoy lesostepi [Peat swamps of the Russian foreststeppe]. Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1958, 191 p.
10. Khotinskiy N. A. Golotsen Severnoy Evrazii: opyt transkontinental'noy korrelyatsii etapov razvitiya rastitel'nosti i klimata: k X Kongressu INQUA (Velikobritaniya, 1977): monogr. [The Holocene in Northern Eurasia: the experience of transcontinental correlation of vegetation and climate development stages: for X INQUA Congress (Great Britain, 1977)]. Moscow: Nauka, 1977, 200 p.
11. Blagoveshchenskaya N. V. Ekologiya [Ecology]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 83–88.
12. Blagoveshchenskaya N. V. Istoriya rastitel'nosti tsentral'noy chasti Privolzhskoy vozvyshennosti v golotsene: dis. d-ra biol. nauk: 03.00.16 [The vegetation history of the central part of the Volga Upland in the Holocene: dissertation to aplly for the degree of the doctor of biological sciences]. Ulyanovsk, 2009, 665 p.
13. Silaeva T. B. Flora basseyna reki Sury (sovremennoe sostoyanie, antropogennaya transformatsiya i voprosy okhrany): dis. d-ra biol. nauk [The Sura river basin flora (contemporary condition, anthropogenic transformation and preservation issues): dissertation to aplly for the degree of the doctor of biological sciences]. Moscow, 2006,907 p.
14. Sprygin I. I. Bor'ba lesa so step'yu v Penzenskoy gubernii [The struggle between the forest and the steppe in Penza province]. Penza: Penzenskoe gubzemupravlenie, 1922, 20 p.
15. Mil'kov F. N. Lesostep' Russkoy ravniny. Opyt landshaftnoy kharakteristiki [The Russian Plain’s forest-steppe. The landscape characteristics experience]. Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1950, 296 p
16. Lomov S. P., Solodkov N. N. Eolovye ekosistemy (pamyatniki neolita), sovremennye i pogrebennye pochvy v poymakh basseyna r. Sura v golotsene [Eolian ecosystems (monuments of the late Stone Age), contemporary and buried soils in the Sura river basin’s flood plains in the Holocene]. Penza: PGUAS, 2014, 167 p.
17. Vostochnoevropeyskie lesa: istoriya v golotsene i sovremennost'. Kn. 1 [East European forests: the history in the Holocene and modern times. Book 1]. Execut. by O. V. Smirnova. Moscow: Nauka, 2004, 479 p.
18. Neolit Severnoy Evrazii [The late Stone Age in Northern Eurasia]. Execut. by S. V. Oshibkina. Moscow: Nauka, 1996, 377 p.
19. Epokha bronzy lesnoy polosy SSSR [The Bronze Age in the forest zone of USSR]. Execut. O. N. Bader, D. A. Kraynov, M. F. Kosarev. Moscow: Nauka, 1987, 470 p.
20. Velichko A. A., Starkel' L., Tobol'skiy K. et al. Paleogeograficheskaya osnova sovremennykh landshaftov: rezul'taty rossiysko-pol'skikh issledovaniy [The paleogeographical basis of contemporary landscapes: results of the Russian-Polish research]. Moscow: Nauka, 1994, 204 p.
21. Bobrovskiy M. V. Lesnye pochvy Evropeyskoy Rossii: bioticheskie i antropogennye faktory formirovaniya [Forest soils of European Russia: biotic and anthropogenic factors of formation]. Moscow: Tovarishchestvo nauchnykh izdaniy KMK, 2010, 359 p.
22. Ikonnikov D. S. Sovremennye kontseptsii ekologii biosistem, ikh rol' v reshenii problem sokhraneniya prirody i prirodopol'zovaniya: materialy Vseros. (s mezhdunar. uchastiem) nauch. shk.-konf., posvyashch. 115-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya A. A. Uranova (g. Penza, 10–14 maya 2016 g.) [Contemporary conceptions of biosystem ecology, their role in environmental preservation and nature management issues: proceedings of the All-Russian (with international participation) scientific school-conference devoted to the 115th jubilee of A. A. Uranov (Penza, 10th–14th May 2016)]. Penza: Izd-vo PGU, 2016, pp. 311–314.
23. Ikonnikov D. S., Stavitskiy V. V. Prirodnoe nasledie Rossii: sb. nauch. st. Mezhdunar. nauch. konf., posvyashch. 100-letiyu natsional'nogo zapovednogo dela i Godu ekologii v Rossii (g. Penza, 23–25 maya 2017 g.) [The natural heritage of Russia: proceedings of the International scientific conference devoted to the 100th anniversary of the national nature reserve management and the Year of Ecology in Russia (Penza, 23rd–25th May 2017)]. Penza: Izd-vo PGU, 2017, pp. 345–347.