Artemova Serafima Nikolaevna, Candidate of geographical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of geography, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Ikonnikov Dmitry Sergeevich, Doctor of historical sciences, sub-department of human anatomy, head of the anthropological laboratory of the sub-department of human anatomy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Lomov Stanislav Petrovich, Doctor of geographical sciences, professor, sub-department of real estate cadaster and law, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (28 Titova street, Penza, Russia); Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Environmental Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. A great landscape diversity and a high natural potential of the northern forest-steppe define a special place of this region in the Russian economy, as one of the most important agricultural regions. In the course of preparing a program of the region’s sustainable development it is very important to restore borders and contents of indigenous landscapes and to study the dynamics and nature of the landscapes’ transformation. To understand the laws of nature development in the present and give a reasonable estimate of their development for the future it is necessary to reconstruct the paleogeographic conditions of past eras. The Holocene is the period when zonal landscapes were shaped and their anthropogenic changes began. The aim of this study is to identify main regularities of development and dynamics of the territory of the Upper Sura river and Mokshan district landscapes in the Holocene.
Materials and methods. The initial materials for the study were: a landscape map of Penza region, cartographic and archival materials on geology, soils, climate, vegetation and archaeological materials of the area under consideration. The main sources of information on the evolution of the Penza region’s landscape in the Holocene
were the data obtained as a result of fundamental research of climate change and vegetation of adjacent territories, that were reflected in works by A. A Velichko, E. Y. Novenco, N. V. Blagovecenskaya, O. V. Smirnova, I. I. Sprygin, F. N. Milkov, N. I. Pyavchenko, T. B. Silaeva, A. A. Chiguryaeva, V. S. Dokturovskiy. A historical and geographical analysis of the landscape development was performed using the retrospective method.
Results. The article gives general characteristics of development and dynamics of the territory of the Upper Sura river and Mokshan district landscapes in the Holocene. We identified the main stages of indigenous landscapes formation and their transformation under the influence of economic activities, as well as conducted the historical and geographical analysis at the level of landscape and terrain types.
Conclusions. Geological and geomorphological processes of climate fluctuation and economic activities in the Holocene affected the formation of modern landscapes. Early periods of development are determined by features of the lithogenic basis and climate, and the evolution of the vegetation is consistent with the climatic parameters. The most important factor of the formation of the landscapes in the second half of the Holocene is the economic activity. Indigenous forest and steppe landscapes were formed in the mid Holocene, and their development with the participation of the anthropogenic factor began 2500–3000 thousand years ago. The most powerful influence of economic activities and the development of destructive geoecological processes have occured from the 17th century.
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